Family, Couple and Systemic Therapy. Gestalt Therapy. Grief and Bereavement. Group Psychotherapy. Individual Psychotherapy. Jung and Analytical Psychology. Lacanian Psychoanalysis. Neuro Linguistic Programming.
Organisational Psychology. Popular Psychology. Psychotherapy and Politics. Selected Fiction, Biography and Memoir. Transactional Analysis. Transpersonal Therapy. A very approximate rule of thumb for our society would put the end somewhere in one's twenties. The Intimacy vs.
Isolation conflict is emphasized around the age of At the start of this stage, identity vs. Young adults are still eager to blend their identities with friends. They want to fit in. Erikson believes we are sometimes isolated due to intimacy. We are afraid of rejections such as being turned down or our partners breaking up with us.
We are familiar with pain and to some of us rejection is so painful that our egos cannot bear it. Erikson also argues that "Intimacy has a counterpart: Distantiation: the readiness to isolate and if necessary, to destroy those forces and people whose essence seems dangerous to our own, and whose territory seems to encroach on the extent of one's intimate relations" Once people have established their identities, they are ready to make long-term commitments to others.
They become capable of forming intimate, reciprocal relationships e. If people cannot form these intimate relationships—perhaps because of their own needs—a sense of isolation may result; arousing feelings of darkness and angst. Generativity is the concern of guiding the next generation. Socially-valued work and disciplines are expressions of generativity. The adult stage of generativity has broad application to family, relationships, work, and society. During middle age the primary developmental task is one of contributing to society and helping to guide future generations.
When a person makes a contribution during this period, perhaps by raising a family or working toward the betterment of society, a sense of generativity—a sense of productivity and accomplishment—results. In contrast, a person who is self-centered and unable or unwilling to help society move forward develops a feeling of stagnation—a dissatisfaction with the relative lack of productivity. As we grow older and become senior citizens we tend to slow down our productivity and explore life as a retired person. It is during this time that we contemplate our accomplishments and are able to develop integrity if we see ourselves as leading a successful life.
If we see our life as unproductive, or feel that we did not accomplish our life goals, we become dissatisfied with life and develop despair , often leading to depression and hopelessness. The final developmental task is retrospection: people look back on their lives and accomplishments. They develop feelings of contentment and integrity if they believe that they have led a happy, productive life.
They may instead develop a sense of despair if they look back on a life of disappointments and unachieved goals. This stage can occur out of the sequence when an individual feels they are near the end of their life such as when receiving a terminal disease diagnosis.
Joan M. Addressing these new challenges requires "designating a new ninth stage". Erikson was ninety-three years old when she wrote about the ninth stage. Joan Erikson showed that all the eight stages "are relevant and recurring in the ninth stage". For example, in the first stage infancy , the psychosocial crisis was "Trust vs. Mistrust" with Trust being the "syntonic quotient" and Mistrust being the "dystonic".
Trust: Hope" In the ninth stage, "elders are forced to mistrust their own capabilities" because one's "body inevitably weakens". Yet, Joan Erikson asserts that "while there is light, there is hope" for a "bright light and revelation". Autonomy: Will" Ninth stage elders face the "shame of lost control" and doubt "their autonomy over their own bodies". So it is that "shame and doubt challenge cherished autonomy". Industry: Competence" Industry as a "driving force" that elders once had is gone in the ninth stage. Being incompetent "because of aging is belittling" and makes elders "like unhappy small children of great age".
Identity: Fidelity" Elders experience confusion about their "existential identity" in the ninth stage and "a real uncertainty about status and role". Intimacy: Love" In the ninth stage, the "years of intimacy and love" are often replaced by "isolation and deprivation". Relationships become "overshadowed by new incapacities and dependencies". Generativity: Care" The generativity in the seventh stage of "work and family relationships", if it goes satisfactorily, is "a wonderful time to be alive". In one's eighties and nineties, there is less energy for generativity or caretaking.
Thus, "a sense of stagnation may well take over". Integrity: Wisdom" Integrity imposes "a serious demand on the senses of elders". Wisdom requires capacities that ninth stage elders "do not usually have".
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The eighth stage includes retrospection that can evoke a "degree of disgust and despair". In the ninth stage, introspection is replaced by the attention demanded to one's "loss of capacities and disintegration". Living in the ninth stage, Joan Erikson expressed confidence that the psychosocial crisis of the ninth stage can be met as in the first stage with the "basic trust" with which "we are blessed". Erikson was a student of Anna Freud ,  the daughter of Sigmund Freud , whose psychoanalytic theory and psychosexual stages contributed to the basic outline of the eight stages, at least those concerned with childhood.
Namely, the first four of Erikson's life stages correspond to Freud's oral, anal, phallic, and latency phases, respectively. Also, the fifth stage of adolescence is said to parallel the genital stage in psychosexual development:. Although the first three phases are linked to those of the Freudian theory, it can be seen that they are conceived along very different lines.
Emphasis is not so much on sexual modes and their consequences as on the ego qualities which emerge from each stages.
Chapter 34 - Psychosocial and Organizational Factors
There is an attempt also to link the sequence of individual development to the broader context of society. Erikson saw a dynamic at work throughout life, one that did not stop at adolescence. He also viewed the life stages as a cycle: the end of one generation was the beginning of the next. Seen in its social context, the life stages were linear for an individual but circular for societal development: .
In Freud's view, development is largely complete by adolescence. In contrast, one of Freud's students, Erik Erikson — believed that development continues throughout life. Erikson took the foundation laid by Freud and extended it through adulthood and into late life. There is debate [ citation needed ] as to whether people only search for identity during the adolescent years or if one stage needs to happen before other stages can be completed.
However, Erikson states that each of these processes occur throughout the lifetime in one form or another, and he emphasizes these "phases" only because it is at these times that the conflicts become most prominent. Most empirical research into Erikson has related to his views on adolescence and attempts to establish identity. His theoretical approach was studied and supported, particularly regarding adolescence, by James E.
This supports the part of Eriksonian theory, that suggests that those best equipped to resolve the crisis of early adulthood are those who have most successfully resolved the crisis of adolescence. Modern ideas about Erikson's stages of psychosocial development take into account the mathematical mechanisms of epigenetic regulation. Attention is drawn to the Fibonacci sequence , which is described as a timing mechanism for emergent change and hierarchical complexity at multiple levels e. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Eight stages model of psychoanalytic development.
An encyclopedia of philosophy articles written by professional philosophers.
Important figures. Important works. Schools of thought. Boston Graduate School of Psychoanalysis. Psychology portal. Thomas Jr. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications 6th ed. Backdrop to His Thought Although a highly original thinker, Freud was also deeply influenced by a number of diverse factors which overlapped and interconnected with each other to shape the development of his thought.
Critical Evaluation of Freud It should be evident from the foregoing why psychoanalysis in general, and Freud in particular, have exerted such a strong influence upon the popular imagination in the Western World, and why both the theory and practice of psychoanalysis should remain the object of a great deal of controversy.
The Claim to Scientific Status This is a crucially important issue since Freud saw himself first and foremost as a pioneering scientist, and repeatedly asserted that the significance of psychoanalysis is that it is a new science , incorporating a new scientific method of dealing with the mind and with mental illness. The Coherence of the Theory A related but perhaps more serious point is that the coherence of the theory is, at the very least, questionable. Freud's Discovery? In this way, it is suggested, the theory of the Oedipus complex was generated.
References and Further Reading a. Strachey with Anna Freud , 24 vols.
Dr Margarita Palacios
London: New York: Free Press, Bettlelheim, B. Knopf, Cavell, M. Harvard University Press, Becoming a Subject: Reflections in Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. Chessick, R. Freud Teaches Psychotherapy. Hackett Publishing Company, Cioffi, F. Freud: Modern Judgements. Macmillan, Deigh, J. Dilman, I. Freud and Human Nature.
Blackwell, Dilman, I.
Freud and the Mind. Blackwell, Edelson, M. Hypothesis and Evidence in Psychoanalysis. University of Chicago Press, Erwin, E. MIT Press, Fancher, R. Norton, Farrell, B. The Standing of Psychoanalysis. Oxford University Press, Fingarette, H. HarperCollins, Freeman, L.
The Story of Anna O. Paragon House, Frosh, S. Yale University Press, Gardner, S. Irrationality and the Philosophy of Psychoanalysis. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, University of California Press, Gay, V. Freud on Sublimation: Reconsiderations. Hook, S. Psychoanalysis, Scientific Method, and Philosophy.
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The Analytic Freud: Philosophy and Psychoanalysis. London: Routledge, Levy, D. MacIntyre, A. The Unconscious: A Conceptual Analysis. Mahony, P. Masson, J. Neu, J. The Cambridge Companion to Freud. Freud and the Passions. Pennsylvania State University Press, Popper, K. Hutchinson, Pendergast, M. Reiser, M. Basic Books, Ricoeur, P. Freud and Philosophy: An Essay in Interpretation trans. Robinson, P.