They are also more engaged in academic work, and they attend school more and learn more National Research Council and Institute of Medicine, This means that children and the adults with whom children interact in educational settings must have and avail themselves of opportunities to demonstrate that they care about each other in meaningful ways.
In that process, children can more easily take risks, explore, express themselves, and learn. Children will be more likely to work well with each other and with their teachers when the adults demonstrate care and high regard for them.
Building motivation to learn | Cedefop
Significant reductions also appeared for problem behaviors. Many of these research findings have influenced one of the most important funding streams in this country developed to create vibrant learning environments for children after school: the 21st Century Community Learning Centers initiative. Through the funding requirements of this federal program, public schools partner with community-based organizations to create programs designed to connect students to their homes, schools, and communities.
These programs have had more independence, leverage, and flexibility within school systems than most categorical programs had ever experienced before in the history of public education. High quality 21st Century Community Learning Centers programs emphasize creativity, crusade for fresh ideas, continuously energize and motivate staff, and combat any tendency toward bureaucratization.
Most staff members reside within 2 miles of the schools in which they work, and collectively they more closely reflect the ethnicity and daily experiences of the children who are enrolled in the program. This helps create the kinds of learning environments that promote engagement and support the development of trusting, meaningful relationships. Activities in program areas of enrichment, recreation, and nutrition are created based on the interests, curiosities, and even fears of the students.
At the same time, the program at each site also complements and expands skills in literacy and numeracy that, in turn, support learning during the regular school day. If a planned activity does not have the respectful engagement of students, staff members are expected to change the activity.
Each site is assigned two itinerant support staff, who conduct frequent site visits to monitor program implementation. These traveling staff members also assist staff in achieving activity performance goals through the steps of inquiry, observation, assessment, debriefing, and planning. Traveling staff, generally more experienced than site-based staff, communicate clear, concise, and observable indicators of high quality practices at each step.
Additionally, consistent collaboration and communication by site staff with principals, teachers, and other regular school-day personnel promote tighter alignment of program efforts in support of enhanced student learning. There are other programs that, similarly, have developed and enacted programs to engage youth deeply and meaningfully. Robert Halpern describes several apprenticeship programs involving young people in various settings, such as schools; youth-serving organizations; and arts, civic, and other cultural institutions.
The student gains knowledge, skills, and habits of mind from the planned activities, social interaction, and performances undertaken with the adult s. In his Presidential Address at the Meetings of the Society for Research on Adolescence in , Reed Larson describes a number of youth-serving programs involved in a study he is conducting. Each of these programs seeks meaningful engagement of youth in consequential efforts in which they can make a difference in their own lives and in their community. Commission on Children at Risk. Hardwired to connect: The new scientific evidence for authoritative communities.
Durlak, J. This can be highly challenging, as some of the students' erroneous actions will violate school rules or perhaps even legal boundaries.
We must handle such cases individually and with discerning judgment rather than with the kind of formulaic justice that has led the United States to have the largest school dropout rates and, proportionately, the greatest prison population of any developed country, according to recent reports in the New York Times. This is how, all too often, promising lives get discarded. With all the talk about the importance of engagement, it's possible to lose sight of exactly what leads students to have a feeling of being engaged.
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The feeling of being engaged in a setting or group happens when students have opportunities to receive positive recognition and to make positive contributions, can spend time in environments in which teamwork is encouraged, and get help learning new skills that they find valuable and helpful in their lives. Engaging settings in the school and the community have logos, mottos, missions, and other tangible things that allow students to experience a sense of belonging and pride.
Particularly for students who are in disadvantaged circumstances, spending time in engaging settings both in school and after school is important. After-school settings linked to the school as well as community programs -- such as Boys and Girls Clubs, 4-H, Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts, Big Brothers Big Sisters, and faith-based youth groups -- provide more chances for students to build positive relationships with caring adults and, potentially, supportive peers. One unique feature of mentors in nonschool settings is that they can often help students learn the rules of the game for success in school.
Mentors in after-school and community settings are often better positioned to communicate clearly to students about the potential consequences of their actions and the behaviors that they need to change, and how to change them. Also, they can give feedback about how students are progressing so they can operate in a spirit of improvement. Caring adults outside the formal school system often have a better understanding of students' lives outside of school and can help them find safe havens within the school day.
Now that you have read this, I invite you to share your own recipe variations. What's missing that seems essential in your experience? Do you have any thoughts about how best to get your hands on these ingredients? National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.
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Breaking Down Barriers: First-Generation College Students and College Success
Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 12 1 , Naumann, W. Identifying variables that predict college success for first-generation college students.
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Journal of College Admission, , 4. Petty, T. Motivating first-generation students to academic success and college completion. College Student Journal, 48 2 , Pitre, C. Increasing underrepresented high school students' college transitions and achievements. Effects of motivation on educational attainment: Ethnic and developmental differences among first-generation students.
Journal of Hispanic Higher Education, 11 1 , Sandoval-Lucero, E. African American and Latina o community college students' social capital and student success. College Student Journal, 48 3 , Sparkman, L, Maulding, W. Non-cognitive predictors of student success in college. College Student Journal, 46 3 , Sommerfeld, A. Fostering social and cultural capital in urban youth: A programmatic approach to promoting college success. Journal of Education, 1 , Stephens, N. Closing the social-class achievement gap: A difference-education intervention improves first-generation students' academic performance and all students' college transition.
Psychological Science Sage Publications Inc. Wilkins, A. Race, age, and identity transformations in the transition from high school to college for Black and first-generation White men.
What teens want from their schools
Sociology of Education, 87 3 , Opinions expressed in Innovation Showcase are those of the author s and do not necessarily reflect those of the League for Innovation in the Community College. Skip to main content. Latest Theme Popular. Innovation Showcase. Student Retention Teaching Strategies. Financial Challenges Part of the decision to attend college involves answering the question, "How am I going to pay for this?
Racial Disparity Racial and ethnic disparity is well documented over the course of U.