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Then we can go back and listen to the original and figure out which one was really being used. But this generalized way of learning tunes causes most of us to generalize the sounds of chords. But each one of these implies a different melodic structure. Reg, if your ear hears the Aminor triad over the C7, that's cool. That's totally a viable option. But it's creating a C13 chord Of course you can add the Db note if you want Its a C13b Are the right notes being phrased in a way that really makes the melodic statement true to the upper structure of the chord?

We're all working with the same 12 notes So quick example. I recorded this video in the shed earlier today. Partly for myself just to listen back and hear this stuff objectively, and partly to share with you guys. I was working on my D,9 chord. Which is a C major triad in the melodic structure sitting on top of a Dminor7 chord. But your implying what you want right. And basically when you have a pedal going on But generally when your only playing what we're somewhat use to hearing, at least have heard before Your pedal sounded like I dig your directions.

And yea Generally I use the root as reference and spell whats on top. I very rarely just play the notated chord of charts I play chord patterns with lead lines which imply the changes and reinforce the harmonic style of what ever I'm playing. So me hearing the Amin triad was basically because the standard relative min chord is generally the 1st relationship, in this case Not C13 mixo C13b9 from Harm. I would hear and generally use the Amaj triad as A7b9 9b13 first If the chord was spelled differently then I would reflect the spelling Generally C13b9 implies Harmonic Maj.

I dig your somewhat modal Thanks for posting. Yeah, it is almost like a mode I think of modes as using the same scale over different chirds, and in doing so it creates different sounds. Here it's more about analyzing the chord to find all the different scales that can be found within it. Similar to modes. But the emphasis is more on the finding the structure of the melodic content, and not just what notes work. Finding which notes are stable, which are tense, etc.

The he loop in the video is almost Gsus, D,9 is almost a Gsus just missing the G in the bass. G13sus is the same 4 note thing I would play almost identically over those two chords. But we also have G9sus, Gsus add3, G13sus b9add3, G-7sus And these are just the different sus chords derived using major triads. That's why I love this stuff. It's so specific. It brings a level of clarity in my ear that's challenging to come to without it.

But a long and winding road. Marins, I feel bad for hijacking your thread, but I really appreciate your post because I hadn't even thought about major triads with b5ths. I've been focused just on major triads so far and have close to 30 chords with them My plan was to map out the major triad chords, then move on to minor, then diminished and augmented. And now I have a little more work because I'll have to add maj b5 into the mix. Even within a single scale there are so many options and different ways to approach a basic chord and its melodic relation.

So do I Jordan I generally think of modal or modality as the choice of noted which create the tonality, tonality being the organized relationships between notes. Generally functional guidelines change with different modalities, different notes have the power to make changes, notes and interval move Looking forward to your collection and organization of triads etc Well what I mean by it's the same as the scale is that we're all dipping into the same cookie jar and there's only 12 cookies.

So my little 4 note patterns that I'm currently working with are all going to be inside any number of scale options that someone might chose to use over a give chord. The only real differences I see are that they're a little more specific and concise to a given chord. Again to use D,9 as the example cause it's so easy and sounds so good Again, a good chordal player will put the CMaj notes into the voicing to help glue the sound together.

Now if someone goes to blow over that tune that doesn't understand upper structure of the chord, the assumption will be that the harmonic structure D-7 are going to be considered chord tones.

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And frankly they are. But melodically every one of those notes is actually going to function as a tension against the true nature of what defines the sounds as the D, It won't sound bad. And most other players won't know the different. But it's just like what was talked about in the OP. Like what the piano player was saying. It's the right notes, but something about it isn't quite right.

And then we run into the issue that, even if we know to aim for those C Maj triad notes inside the 7 note scale Which places the balance more on the tension side. Which is actually going to make it harder to do what you were talking about, to outline the chord.

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I've spent 15ish years studying chords and trying to really hone in on dealing with them, and for me this is a fairly logical next step in that same direction. I used to get super into the 3rds and 7ths, and still do sometimes. And then I started trying to get more hip and add in upper extensions and what not In a sense they were because the chord is built in thirds. And the implications of what can be done from this standpoint are pretty amazing.

Just from the few ideas I've had the last couple months. Redesigning an entire new harmonic and chordal vocabulary with small, movable shapes that really accentuate specific tonalities. Being able to manipulate the harmony in specific ways. If I hear the soloist screaming out on the 9th of a minor chord, I can actually make a conscious decision about what type of tonality to put under him. Maybe just a ,9 or even just a Then this system will also help me figure out how to deal with chords like the one I just mentioned.

The basic chords that everyone uses and knows are cool, but what about , 11,9 chords? Or Maj7 11, 9 chords? And also just how to navigate in different directions through lush harmony and really know how to stay connected within it and how to voice lead it in a way that really brings out the depth of each chord. I've also started composing using the system. Which has helped me write more lyrical melodies because they're based on triads with specific tension notes added for movement and it helps me harmonize those melodies with tons of options.

It can help build interesting and unique reharms for standards, since all I have to do is analyze the melody to find the triadic movement in the melodic structure, and then pick any number of options of chords that will perfectly harmonize it. Or I can use it to write out and arrange horn section harmonies by putting the 4 note structures into their voices. I mean for me it's like a whole new level of possibilities. Not sure if that answers your question or not. But it seemed like you were curious about how I view this stuff functionally.

It sounds cool There is common organization for extensions right, all the notes have or can have a reference from which one can create relationships I always can always hear complete note collections Like your creating different relationships and somewhat creating different guidelines for how the notes are reacting together, which notes you want to have the power Looking forward to where it ends up When I hear a min chord with a 9th, 11 and b13 I would generally still hear a enharmonic spelling of VI degree chord from Melodic Min.

The 11 would enharmonically spelled from b5, pretty common practice when pulling from MM. And Maj7 9 11 is generally from 6th degree of Har. I still like the concept of using different approach for arranging or composing etc I'm just interested Functional aspects Yeah, it's pretty much what I'm talking about and where I'm heading. Definitely an organizational system.


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Prior to studying with him, and really for the first month or two of that process, I just couldn't quite wrap my mind around his point He would talk about the harmonic progression of the tune vs the melodic progression. And the melodic progression was always different than the harmonic. But, not so obvious, the melodic progression would be CMaj triad moving to an EMaj triad. This actually annoyed me at first, and I called my teacher out on this. I'd spent 20 years trying to unify everything in my thought process.

Why on earth should I allow him to separate and segregate things out into 2 separate entities. But his playing and compositions speak for themselves and gave me the trust and faith to follow his method. And eventually I started to see the importance, and that the two separate entities would eventually re-unify and with it would bring a greater sense of musical depth. And that's already starting to happen with the few chords that I've really had a chance to work with. When I first start working on ear training with my own private students to help them open and develop their ears, I often start by explaining that the notes actually have desires and energies and emotions and innately want to behave in certain ways.

Ways that even non-musicians intuitively and sub-consciously hear and understand. They always look at me like I'm insane. But then I play the C scale from Do up to Ti and ask them to sing what they think the next note should be. Without fail aside from people who can't properly sing specific pitches in tune , everyone will always sing the next Do. Now when we get into creating music, we don't ALWAYS have to give the notes what they want, but for me as a musician it's imperative that I understand and feel what the notes innately want What exploring this system has shown me is that I have drastically missed what the notes want melodically speaking when confronted with different harmonies beneath them.

It's got all the right notes, everything is diatonic and dandy. The problem is for me and most other musicians the assumption carried along with this harmonic approach is that C is the tonic, E is the 3rd, G is the 5th, and so on. As you mentioned So a few months ago, that is how I would have approached this chord, functionally. I would have thought of C as the tonic, and therefore the most resolved note. However, the melodic progression structure of this chord is actually built on a BMaj triad.

We can certainly do whatever we want, and organize however we want, but the notes innately are built this way in this chord and want to function this way, melodically Which means that C, the note I would have assumed was the melodic tonic, is actually going to function as Ra, the b2. E what I used to think was the 3rd is actually functioning as Fa wanting to resolve down to the actual melodic 3rd of D , etc etc. I know it may seem like this is just a music theory argument being made. But I am only communicating with words and theory what is innately there in the notes.

No different than playing that C scale from Do to Ti and hearing the innate urge to want to resolve to the Do above Ti. That's why, even after I understood all this stuff, it still took me a month or two of exploring and listening to be won over. I had to actually sit at the piano and try it. Unfortunately for us and all non-piano players the piano really is the best way to learn to hear this stuff I know, that's blasphemous to say on a guitar forum hahahaha. There's simply something not re-creatable about playing the full voicing of a chord with the sustain pedal down, and then playing melodically over it with all the notes and their overtones singing out and dancing and intertwining with each other.

I think that's why we mostly miss it. And why there are sooooo many piano players who have such an unbelievable depth of harmonic and melodic beauty to them vs not as many guitarists. We're trying to recreate what they can do. I think it's easier for them to accidentally stumble upon this way of thinking over time because they're listening to it all the time.

The closest we can come to that when we're practicing is if we're using a loop pedal, and even that is still not as clear and obvious. Even George Benson didn't get it until a piano player pointed it out. As was explained in the story from the OP. If we're playing over D9 especially if there's no piano it will certainly sound perfectly fine and acceptable to treat D as the melodic tonic.

That's the go to for almost everyone. But as the piano player pointed out, when the D9 chord is voiced out in that way that made George's heart sing out it was so beautiful, the D is actually functioning melodically as the 2 against that CMaj triad. And it was an important enough sticking point to the piano player to actually stop a concert in the middle of the tune and start training George's ear to hear it. And it was a profound enough moment for George to not only let the piano player school him on stage in front of an audience, but then to want to share that story and tell others how amazing a learning experience it was for him.

It's a huge shift. At least to me. And seemingly to George Benson. To me it's about transcending the vertical way of thinking and approaching music harmonic What notes function as the melodic tonic in a given chord. I've found that it is actually almost never the harmonic tonic. Almost every time, the notes have an innate drive and energy that causes something other than the harmonic tonic to function as the melodic tonic. I suppose it also brings with it the vertical approach as well because it does organize the full voicing of the chords in a way to tie together the harmony and the melody, again the way the piano player in the story was showing George that got him so excited and made his heart sing.

To my ear, it's the hippest thing I've ever heard. And it's pretty much the majority of what I do in my practice time now. Mapping out the fretboard for specific chords. Playing them at the piano and singing along with the actual melodic progression and hearing how the melodic tension notes behave. Analyzing standards this way so that I can improvise over them with greater melodic integrity and so that I can play chords that properly harmonize the melodic structure.

Etc etc. I have one more semester after this one to wrap up my masters program, and I'm planning on writing my masters thesis on the application of this system onto the guitar. The geometric, pattern oriented instrument we all know and love. It's much more challenging to spot this stuff on the fretboard than it is at the piano.

For so many reasons. I really want to map all of it out. Or at least the more essential elements. I think my teacher once told me that once you analyze the chords using major, minor, diminished, and augmented upper structure triads there are something like different types of chords, and each will sound and behave a little different. There's almost 30 of them just from using major triads. I'll probably try and stick to the more common ones for my thesis, as I only have 50 written pages to work with plus music notation add-ons.

Perhaps if I go for a PhD I'll try and organize all of them for the guitar for that Just some difference we have D to G13b No problems with a harmonic layer working with a melodic layer or two different tonal implications working together. The Cmaj triad could be part of the D- dorian tonal reference or can ce it's own C tonal reference I mean it's pretty standard practice to have different tonal references going on the same time D- dorian and F lydian, Don't you sometimes play C tonal target over D-7 to G7 vamp, usually in blues direction That's pretty much what playing the sub game is right I'm not sure of your organization for which triads, The Cma triad is B7,9 and 11 of D- and the Ema triad is 13, b9 and 3 so not same organization as far as which notes, but maybe the maj 3rd relationship of the triads is your organization The implied tonic or tonal target concept seems to also be a difference how we hear or understand.

C is the tonic only if the tune or the music being performed implies C to be the tonic. We're Jazz players right Personally the last thing I want is for all the notes to line up and sound like functional Harmony I don't worry about standard resolutions and voiceleading Generally that's part of our job One thing worth remembering or maybe just worth knowing, as I don't think I stated this yet That's probably how I've been talking about it.

But it's worth realizing that it ALL starts with the ears. There is not a set of rules that a guy made up that forces the notes to be organized in any such particular fashion. It starts by sitting at the piano, playing a given type of chord in the left hand maj7, min7, whatever and simply listening to all the individual notes above it and making a simple decision.

Does this note sound harmonious within the chord? Or does it sound separate and bi-tonal, like it's sitting on top of the chord. From there we have a list of notes found purely with the ear that can then be viewed logically and analytically using theory. Just want to make sure you realize that this is coming from a place of personal listening It's not a right or wrong thing. To me, the notes do have innate functions that are undeniable To me the hippest stuff that's EVER been composed and improvised is deeply deeply rooted in functional harmony.

To each's own. A buddy of mine that's in my program studied with the same guy I'm working with last year. He's a piano player and is monstrous. He's also a big Monk fan. He was telling me about this one Monk tune I forget which that he actually didn't like. He said it sounded like Monk was just playing non-sense.

Like he was just hitting the piano with a flattened out hand like an annoying child. He took it upon himself to transcribe the tune though, and he found that not only was it NOT nonsense It can be vanilla if we only use it in a vanilla way It's all in what the artist brings it. For me, the only way to bring anything to the table is for me to get serious about doing my homework.

To open my ears up, to find lots of options, to develop lots of muscle memory, and to really experiment with burrowing deeper and deeper into tonality universes Though I'm well aware that not everyone agrees with me and feels it's more important just to play. I've always thought of music as being a mirror that reflects back to us what we put into it. And there's no one thing that we have to put in front of it.

For me it's important to follow my ear and my gut. And they've always led me towards more and more interesting sounds. Sounds which, even when being played "in", I don't hear as vanilla Here's a couple of killin' videos to check out of his playing if your curious. Again, not so much just about HIS playing And to me his playing, his improv, and his compositions are so rich and deep. Here he's playing with Kenny Barron.


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  • Not necessarily straight ahead, but more of a traditional, straight ahead type vibe. I just found a little 10 minute video clip of Stefon talking about some of this process. Check it out. Maybe hearing him talk about it and showing it at the piano might help you get where I've been coming from Join Date Dec Posts This is all very interesting and cool but Isn't it just a D9 with C in Bass he describes?

    Thanks Jordan for more info So basically we're maybe even more in agreement Your talking about creating relationships and developing them. That's what I've always done. I do always find it interesting to hear great players discuss what that theory, harmony, melodic etc The connections which open their door for they're playing, composing etc I'm alright with having an explanation or not having one I can perform either way. It's not that complicated. Performance doesn't need to be fully explained before it happens.

    The only thing I tend to get into is when we verbally discuss what the music is I'm older and have spent too much time composing and arranging Everything becomes a groove Have you noticed how much of Stefons harmony is held together with a rhythmic groove, at least usually to help create the relationships I'm in and from the same school. The SF collective is a cool group get together, always interesting music.

    Originally Posted by vhollund. I think that if that was what he wanted to communicate, he would have said "on top of" and not "over" which is ambiguous In my terminology playing something "over" a given chord Means playing something while that chord is indicated. But to me it was pretty clear that C was not being put in the bass in this story. The whole physical structure of our instrument is upside down. My students often talk about the top note of a chord when they're really referring to the bass note.

    Physically they're right. But musically, that's the bottom note. And I always try and make that point clear. As they get better and start playing with non-guitar players, there's going to be a lot of confusion if they refer to the bass note of a chord as the top note and the highest pitch note of a chord as the bottom note. Piano is much more clear about this. You have the stuff in the left hand, which is the bottom stuff And the stuff in the right hand which is the top stuff You can definitely use the word 'over' to refer to ideas that can be played 'over' a given chord And in that sense, 'over' would be used to delineate the physical placement of the notes within a chord voicing.

    It's not common to do this with polychords on guitar, but we do it all the time with our slash chords. It works the same way with the poly chords we've been talking about the last few days, except that now it's not a triad over a given root note, but rather a triad over another chord altogether. By all means, take door number 3 and check it out. It'll give you sort of a CMa13, 11, But it will give you a different chord that what I believe George is talking about in this story. Another cool thing is that, just like you were using the word 'over' to refer to idea that can be played on top of a chord Because your melodic statement would be grounded in and growing outwards from the actual harmony at hand.

    So in that sense I totally agree. I just don't think that it implies putting a C in the bass. The bass would still be a D note. And the chord built up vertically would be starting off with all the basic D7 notes. Then the upper structure on top and over it. That's my understanding. Man you like to write! We are talking about a chord voicing Hey man, yeah again I can't speak to the exact voicing Freddie was talking about.

    The indicator to me is that while Freddie does say a C with a b 5 over a D To me this makes it pretty obvious that he's telling George about a chord, and a specific way to voice it. Otherwise, simply saying "Play D9" would have been enough information. And that's why when he stops him, George says "But I was playing a D9 chord" Freddie says "Not that D9". George says, "A D9 is a D9. He acknowledges other ways to do it like the A-6 over a D bass note that you mentioned And he hears them as different enough from each other. Different enough to stop the concert mid tune and start school George Benson!

    I'd have loved to have seen that. The piano voicing I wrote out earlier is not the way it has to be played. Just like Freddie showing George several options. I'm simply spelling the entire full chord out this way as I think it's easier to hear. Though you're right, the root note D could be left out. And it could just be the 3rd and 7th in the left hand. I think it's important to start with the ear. And for me the best way to hone that in is to sort of spoon feed the ear by letting it hear the entire voicing in full for a while. To really grasp what sets different chord spellings apart from each other.

    Then to manipulate the voicings if we choose. But that's just how I like to listen and hear things. We will all take away from the original story whatever is important to us. I just wanted to take the time to make sure you understood that, while you could play a D9 chord with a C note in the bass like you were asking, that that isn't what Freddie was showing George in the story.

    I gotta run guys. I promise I won't write again for a while hahahaha I got lots of work to do today and I gotta split. Feel free to continue without me hogging the ball. This is just a topic I'm super passionate about and could talk all day with people to clear up misunderstandings and to help educate others about how cool this stuff is. Which is why I'm planning on doing my thesis on it. Unfortunately, it's just not very present in the guitar lexicon.

    Later cats. I'll just agree to disagree on the interpretation and advice people also to check out what i described see you later! I would agree with vhollund that nobody takes my word for anything Definitely try out every idea you can get your hands on Use your ears and listen. That's really the only way to learn any of this stuff. Anyone explored polychords with the freeze pedal?

    I've not done much work on it, but that would seem a logical thing to have a go at. BTW, it sounds like we are really talking about a voicing of a third inversion D7 chord with a 9th in it 9th chord inversions are a bit funny to talk about from this perspective. I'm a big fan of putting thirds and sevenths into the bass. It can make otherwise common chords sound quite special. When I started doing this people started talking about my 'interesting chords' - but all it was was inversions For this type of thing, drop 3's always sound good.

    Even then the path up to the village is unseen the ledge appears to terminate abruptly, high up above the valley, on that side from which you would approach it from the road. It is worth while to remark that the word Betsileo would seem to be a Hova name applied loosely and ignorantly to any place or people south Immediately south of Imerina comes Viikinankaratra, of the river Sisaony. They have great wealth in cattle though superficial observers and new-comers have denied this. The tendency of the foregoing rambling notes, as will be seen, is to show that the place-names have an intimate connection with the characteristics of the places themselves.

    Even now, with our comparatively slight knowledge of Betsileo history, the connection between the names and the peculiarities or distinctive features of the places named is traceable in most cases.

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    A curious word for chiefs and their wives is used by the Bara, Sakalava and some other Malagasy tribes, viz. Queen Ranavalona II. This distinction of having a timber house built upon the stone tomb is also shared pitched roof covered with. Then again, a sovereign is not to. Doubtless sea water was formerly used in all such cases while the Hova were still a shore-dwelling tribe.

    The chief's bedstead cannot be used by any person except one who is also a chief The mat on poured into. Imerina the phrase an'iritra is used to describe the temporary burial of a corpse until the proper tomb is completed. Richardson's description of Betsileo funeral ceremonies, Antanana;. In like manner also licking the. Zdnahary God must be prefixed, and after it the following words are added May the mouth strike on the.

    So that the names of the chiefs almost always contain some word which is in common use by the people. In such a case, however, the ordinary word by which such thing or action has hitherto been known must be changed for another, which Thus, when the henceforth takes its place in daily speech. Rabodo became queen in , at the decease of Radama II. Ramboa, the animal would be henceforth called by another name, probably a descriptive one, such as fa? With one sovereign, number of petty chiefs or kings, the changes would.

    For we can easily conceive what an annoying uncertainty would be introduced into a language by a wide extension of such. Hence, when it was determined that the mother of Rataratsa, who came unexpectedly into the world, should be named Ravahiny [I'ahiny, a stranger], it was forterm should approach.

    These posthumous names all begin with Andrian prince , and end with arivo a thousand , signifying that such a chief was a. Thus a chief called by thousands," of his subjects. Raimosa while living was called Andriamandionarivo after death another, called at first Mikala, was after death known. The kiss place which kissing occupies among Western peoples. The custom is still kept up by many.

    Although hardly gestures, strictly so called, there are sounds used by the Hova on These are a kind of certain occasions which are not speech. Even in a church superiors expect an inferior or younger person to show this mark of respect when passing. The hair is dishevelled for a long time, and children in the schools, and adults in the congregation, refuse to sing at all for a long time after the death of a relative.

    Also of Andriamampandry's ;.

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    The ox Birds Insects Fabulous animals Fanany or Seven-headed Serpent Footprints of giants Trees and plants Ordeals Folk-lore of home-life Lucky and unlucky actions Sickness and death Witchcraft and charms Food and Fady of the Sihanaka Snakes'and lemurs Tabooed Evil omens, days, in clans, and villages Good omens, for food, and wealth as to famine, trade, poverty, and death Weather prognostics Various.

    Madagascar, the humped and long-horned ox. The royal tribes of Maroseranana and Andrevola, in the Fiherea. Moss relates that " a place called Analavory [between the capital and the north-west coast] was described to C. We were also assured that if we stood there and shouted, no matter how dry the day, rain would surely come.

    Mivadika ny U'bzona " " The whales are turning over " and " Manipandro ny zanany ny irbzona " " The whales are bathing ". Ombivblavita, "oxen finished? Here native authorities differ, some asserting legs, while some are uncertain whether the dona a or. A great feast is made oxen are killed rum is drunk to excess ;.

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    While speaking of fabulous animals it may be here noted is, in Imerina at least, some trace of that widespread. In the times when bull-fighting was Tj-ecs and phuits. It was believed that certain charms could make the animals die in. Although the use of the tangena ordeal was abolished in Madagascar by an article in the Anglo-Malagasy treaty of , there can be no doubt that. The town and its curious suburbs were visited by an epidemic of catarrh.

    The natives At this time we at once said that locusts were near at hand. The result was that men, women, and children were seen with these twelve beads hung round the neck as a charm. The crocodile was not originally used as food, as to eat its flesh seemed a too near approach to cannibalism but of later years some have come to consider it waste not to consume what is to hand in such abundance.

    With regard to snakes, their resem;. Separate villages, again, have their fddy, and certain things may not be taken into them. At Imerimandroso water-pots with broken rims, and rushes which have not lain overnight to dry after being cut down, are fddy, and may not be taken into also the pad of grass which a woman wears on her the town there are certain. Thorough materialists they seem to be, for of the various. It is certainly fearful enough to suggest evil. When one dreams that he is falling down from a precipice the dream of young people everywhere , he will be taken ill us also If one dreams that he is crossing dirty water.

    When one dreams that he is drinking brandy, he will get well. When one dreams about fog, he will lose his o. When one dreams that mice are pursuing him, somebody will take away ;. Antananarivo Annual. This is a publication crown octavo volumes containing altogether about. Several articles containing information on folk-lore are also. I still had possessions, while I still was in happy circumwas loved by both father's and mother's relations.

    When I when I admonished, they submitted so spake, they were shamefaced that I was to father's relatives their protection and glory, and to mother's and was to them as the calf born relatives the wide-sheltering sunshade This in the summer,- both amusement and wealth, of whom they said one is the great jwra a species of ficiis , ornament of the field this the. So do not waste the rice, for those whose planting-rice is gone, and who have to proached and openly ashamed. LongUpon my word, I am astonished at thee, Andriamatoa [a term of respect to an elderly man or eldest son] when you married me, you thought the road was not big enough for me, but when you divorced me, you considered me a mere nothing when you asked for me, you spread out like the broad roof of the house, but when you put me the streams be in flood.

    Perhaps you think me a poor little locust left by its companions, which can be caught by any one having a hand. A protection she tells him can be found from the rain by sewing together the mat umbrella, but it is love that is spent, and love that is scattered, and love 1. So help me, good. Referring to the native customs at a funeral, and in making a new tomb. Hova sovereigns the first of whom, also called Andrianampoinimerina, died.

    Thou art indeed childish and dost not perhaps the crocodile, when he lies in the deep pools and does not and when he lies still in the warm place where he sleeps. And the sovereign is the depositary. We are slaves here in Imerina the central province and home of the dominant Hova tribe manure is our friend, the spade is our brother by blood, and the basket is our companion,' ;. And father and mother sigh out their lives at Vohibe may they live " until we meet again, for long has been.

    Most of the principal towns and villages in Imerina are noted some circumstance or other, either in their natural position,. As regards ourselves and not other people for we are people born one root, one stock, brethren following the footprints of the cattle not broken, even if torn a hundred 1. With regard to yourself, Such-an-one the people ht. Take heed to the mouth, friends, for the mouth is a compartment mouth is just like a piece of cloth tearing this way, and tearing that way the mouth is like Alakaosy the unlucky month , and if 2.

    For that has given rise to the popular saying, " Do good that you be not forgotten, even. Towards the close of the last century, Andrianimpoina, King In Malagasy history there are. The Betsileo chief, however, replied that he was no son Hova king, but that they were brothers, each possessing own territory.

    The Hova returned for answer, " I have a. Such playing upon words is a favourite amusement of the and, as some of them show considerable shrewdness a few examples may be given, all of them beginning with the. In number of insects, birds, and household the first of these a objects are mentioned by some more or less vague description of them, such as Adornment of the sovereign? The people. The roof-posts of a house : for a native, when?

    Ho aiza vioa hianao? Hippopotamus A. Next in order in this collection of number of native songs or Hiran' ny Ancients ". The Malagasy people are. They like singing in parts, and when they hear a new tune will often improvise a tenor, alto, or bass accompaniment. The native tunes are somewhat plaintive, and are often.

    Salutation, Rabodonandrianiinpoina Suns there are not two Suns but one only namely , Rabodonandrianimpoina. This was the official and semi-sacred name of the queen. Shortened forms of Ambohimanga and Antananarivo, the. This and the three following words are the names of the northern, southern, and western portions of the capital city, the royal palaces being in the centre, and on the summit of the long rocky ridge on and around which the 3.

    In one of these latter the hearers are cautioned not. Tsianolondroa, But 'tis the wife who is "not-for-two people. Ah, sorrowful O are here his relatives Weeping by night Ah, sorrowful O are here his slaves Sorrowful are they all! Of course he at last overcomes their opposition, and goes away with a confidential grief, for.

    Then one who is biggest is chosen to catch the rest, and this one is called " the robber. As soon " calls out, " Where is Such-an-one for who are hindmost. Calling out thus she comes near to the mother, who answers, " We won't give up Such-anone. Manasa, relahy, manasa e? Tsy ho any, relahy, tsy ho any e Nahoana, relahy, nahoana e?

    Tsy ho vary, relahy, tsy ho vary e Ho vary, relahy, ho vary e Tsy ho hena, relahy, tsy ho hena e Ho hena, relahy, ho hena e Tsy ho akoho, relahy, tsy ho akoho e Ho akoho, relahy, ho akoho e. Not for rice, friends, not for rice For rice, friends, for rice Not for meat, friends, not for meat For meat, friends, for meat Not for fowls, friends, not for fowls For fowls, friends, for fowls! The Sakbda No. The Tr'andraka is a small animal allied to the hedgehogs, belonging to the family Centetida;, of the order Insectivora. But when they come down on the ground they are chased by the one called bbka, and if he touches any one.

    Moon-dead-by-day-but-living-by-night" or "Extinguishedby-day-but-lighted-by-night,"i? These are believed to be the inhabitants of the central provinces of Madaand unacquainted with the use of iron and are said to have been driven westward by a Hova king, named Andriamanelo. See Chapter II. A remnant of this tribe is said to be still existing in the western part of Madagascar. Their tombs are regarded with superstitious dread, and they are supposed to appear to people in their dreams. They are mostly malevolent spirits, '. The annual festival of the Fandrbana or Bathing, at the new year, is a time of great rejoicing among the Malagasy, or, more strictly speaking, among the Hova in the central provinces.

    On the day when bullocks are killed, the children Antananarivo assemble. Then having eaten the fruit they number of songs, children in the country places whose titles only are given. The have a somewhat different custom, for they take meat with them elders. This is much the same as if we, to help to remember the number " one," brought in the word " won " in connection.

    See Folk-Lore Record, vol. Tsipolopolotrn the seeds of Bidcns sp. Another story about it is that a naughty child was put by its father and mother outside the house, and would have been devoured by one of these creatures had it not been quickly rescued. And another day, the tale goes, a child was.

    Songomby " Then the beast really came up, where-. So the parents and the villagers and took torches to seek it, and lo there was. This is the name of an extinct volcano in the Northern Betsileo country. See Chap. They filled with rice some vessel they carried,. Then the Dona swells its body suddenly, so that the Menardna is broken, as if cut with a knife. Such is its power that it is said to be able to force its way out of its hole, although opposed by the strength of the strongest man stopping it up means.

    These examples of the widely-spread tropical pythons belong to a peculiar genus, Sanzinia ; hanging from the branches of the trees, these ser'. They are even said to kill oxen, and occasionally man, but doubtless a good deal of superstition is mixed up with the native accounts of them. There are two persons still living who say that they have certainly seen it their names are Renisoarahanoro and Rainitsimanahy. But when they came to the cave, she would not go forward, but remained at the side of the door neither would she eat food, disliking the things eaten by the the.

    So the Angalapona and his what they should do with her, and they agreed to send her back home. This they did after giving her water-plants. Angdno or Aj'lra ; i. These occupy nearly two-thirds of Mr. Dahle's book pp. Upon that the dog struggled a little, but presently got across and as soon as he landed the crocodile emerged from the water. So the dog said, " You've broken the agreement, old. On the morrow accorddog took him some distance towards ground covered with the trailing tendrils of gourds. But it was to pay him out for what he had done.

    So the dog said, " I will give you a signal, old fellow when I bark, then run off, for people are Agreed," replied the crocodile. So when they got to the water, the crocodile said, " What kind of a dog are you? What's the meaning of this, fellow? There was once a certain couple who were very had three children, theirs, the '. This was an immense monster, half human and half beast, a man-eating creature, and So they stripped her of her underclothing. So the sisters were beside themselves with anger because was prettier than they were, and they said, " If we were to kill Ifara, perhaps father and mother would hear of it and kill us, so let us go and get some of Itrimobe's vegetables, so that he may eat her.

    So Ifara went off to get them but while she was gathering them she was caught by Itrimob6. So he stuck it in again Ifara must be fat, for Why," said and licked the spear. Then he snuffed the air to the east, but there was nothing so fat the spear sticks fast into her. Wherever was that person So she went off home. On the morrow she came again to fetch water, and washing her face again, saw a reflection in the water, and breaking the waterpot said, " A handsome face like mine, indeed, and have But it was Ifara's face she saw to carry water on my head " And again Ifara spoke from up the tree, " Father spends there.

    And when the Mouth heard that, he was angry, and said, You fellows here are talking nonsense, and disputing as to who be the head. For it is I, the foot, only who am senior. So they all humbled themselves to be juniors, and the belly only was agreed to as the eldest and they gathered together ;. The meaning of this amusing fable will be remembered that the Malagasy use the word for a very wide. Whatever you may think, it's an unlucky busiin all my life saw such a thing as this. So the parent birds heard it and came near compound called out thus.

    And when the pair heard that, they came into the house and also Was it you pi. Ambohidrapeto, that is, "Town-of-Kapeto," is a small town on a low about three miles west of the capital. The following is a fable related by the people of old times when they met together and talked The son of God, they say, came down here upon earth, and Rakoriaho and Ravao were his nurses.

    And this son of God, :. And the people also spread abroad, seeking northward and westward and southward, and lastly eastwards. That, they say, is why prayer is ;. There are certain rocks with some curious hollows in them in the place They have probably been produced by rain-water and the unequal. The little finger said, " I am so hungry.

    The second and third fingers have no name in Malagasy, while forefinger, and little finger have each a name of their own. So all parts of the earth agreed to set off at the same time, and the rocks, they say, were to be the cannon balls to fire And early morning was the time fixed to go up. But it is said that the plains and the valleys crept slowly and sky. And when evening came on, then the whole of the animals came and mourned at the door and devoured the child of Rasoa, and every one of them,.

    But when it was broad day and the hawk did not come, the. This is the reason some give for calling certain snakes They believe that the Vazimba gave them Tbmpondrano. Therefore up to the present time many people Many believe this, and dare not kill or eat the Kingfisher. Here in Imerina many people used to supplicate of the Vazimba thus "If thou wilt prosper me," or, " If I recover ;.

    You see that we are damped to become rotten, and when we have become so, we are soon put in the ground but after a little that. And after growing again until we are ripe, we are then reaped with the knife yet we do not change, but still remain rice. And after stopping a little while more, we are then beaten on the stone yet we do not change, but still remain rice.

    And not only so, but we are buried in the rice pit we do not change, but still remain rice. And also, we are drawn out thence, and dried in the sun and when dry we are pounded in the mortar and our skin stripped from us, yet we do not change, but still remain rice. And not only so, but we are green on the earth again, then. And But as. And afterwards you are chewed into fibres with the teeth and after.

    So that we cannot be friends with you sugar-cane," said the Rice. Imahaka displayed an it is said, Ikotofetsy and piece of manioc-root which they had was only a idol, but it And the day was very cloudy, covered with scarlet cloth. So they called the people together, and bade them assemble in an open space and then they brought out the idol, but it did not move 3 because it was only manioc-root. So Ikotofetsy and Imahaka said, " Since we brought out the god, and you did not bring tribute to him, he will not show you his therefore there will be heavy rains to-day, glory, and is angry and the waters will be flooded.

    Imahaka procured a serpent called Mdnditra , and wrapped it up in scarlet cloth as they had done with the piece of manioc-root, and placed it in a basket. This is one of a number of short stories which are very popular with the Malagasy, giving the adventures and various tricks of two clever rogues. The most complete collection of these was published at Antananarivo some years ago. The meaning of Ikotofetsy is the " cunning lad " that of Imahaka is not quite so clear, it perhaps means "the light-fingered one," or one able to carry off by '.

    And then they said to the people, " Should any of you be ill, come here to us, and bring money to the value of a halfpenny to the. One of the supposed aboriginal inhabitants of the central provinces of Madagascar, see auk, p. Rat, saying at the. Soon you are done for, Soon j'ou squeal out. Soon you are shrivelled, Soon you are doubled up, Soon you won't move.

    Dahle has obtained, omitting many of the minuter points of philology. Dahle chapter a. In Imerina and Betsileo the two most important central provinces of the island , it was quite common to style them.

    How to transpose - for C, Bb and Eb instruments

    There employed almost exclusively while the other kinds have more. Before proceeding further, a word or two must be said as to the Malagasy notions of vintana or sikidy. Mr, Dahle believes to be an obsolete collateral form of the Malagasy word kintana, " a star " Malayan bhitatig , and, in its restricted meaning, denotes the destiny of a man as depending on the times as declared b - the stars at the time of birth, and also the.

    Moslem Arabs , from the high mountains, from Raboroboaka and others " here follow nine long names. We have hired thee in exchange for a fat cow with a large hump, and for money on which there was no dust. Awake for thou art the trust of the sovereign and the judgment of the people. Tf thou art a sikidy that can tell, that can see, and does! In the long ;. The others seem to be conSome of sidered as accessory and of secondary importance. This is done in such a manner that two figures are chosen and compared square are filled in the.

    Manna form N'la. N'la and Fahasivy form Masina. Masina and Mpdnonfany form Andriainaniira. There are, however, kinds of sikidy in which no question is put, but the remedy for the evil is preBut as these are rather different from the scribed at once. This being found, we go on. If, on the contrary, I find the same figure in the column called Lalana road , then of course I. The detailed particulars given by Mr.

    Dahle on the point may be put, for the sake of. If the figure Alokbla :: occurs three times in different columns, three stones are to be thrown away as a. If Vanda mitsaiigana v occurs three times, the feathers of a white hen. If a sikidy happens to contain eight Vonts'ira eight healthy men," and are considered an excellent. The Sikidy of Unique Figures. If it happens that any Vbhitra and Trano of the twelve principal columns Tale Fahasivy gets a figure which does not occur in any of the B.

    Most of them simply suggest an answer to a question, remedy against the evil intimated by the however, it may be mentioned that when specimen, As a answer. Andron-tany lit. And this is denoted by the sikidy bringing out a certain figure in a certain column, showing that the thing wanted was to be looked for in a certain direction. Consequently I go to the diviner. And so with the importance to. These days ". When we remember the great influence that astrologers had over emperors, kings, and princes during the Middle Ages, and even far into the seventeenth century, we can easily understand what powers they must have had and.

    Some days were considered absolutely bad of Asorotany, the 2nd of Asombola, the 2nd of Alakaosy, and. Not only were the twenty-eight days of the month called month-names and also after the moon-stations , but,. The inmates, on each day, had to take particular care not to go to the corner or side assigned to that particular day,. Dahle says that the vintana is really the key system of idolatry with. They kill oxen, often in considerable numbers, they rum to excess, they eat plenty of rice and meat, they. Germinet, commander of the Romanche, and which comes from the little rocky islet called Nosy Loapasana, whose name signifies " hollowed out by tombs.

    The rest of the body, evidently compressed transversely and mouldering in its wrappings, shows some of the bones more or less displaced in the midst of the remains of. Ham3', who has taken the principal measurements, has stated, indeed, that the cranium is very plainly brachycephalic diam. This brachycephalism is, besides, in harmony with the existence of a large occipi to-parietal plate, such as one meets so frequently in crania from the Indian Archipelago. The vertical diameter is, at the same time, sensibly inferior la the transverse, a circumstance which. Here are, in addition, the principal measurements given by M.

    Hamy as to the cranium from the tomb at Xosy Loapasana Circ. Germinet, give the following means of the respective dimensions Circ. Taimoro chiefs were interred in a house situated in the village, but this custom has been abandoned. The commonalty, the vohitra or free people, are interred in a coffin. There seems a remarkable parallel to this Malagasy belief in the transmigration of the souls of chiefs into some animal in the practice of the Samoans, " The uubiiricd occasioned great as thus described by the Rev.

    Turner Nor were the Samoans, like the ancient Romans, satisfied with a concern. On the beach, near where a person had been drowned, and whose body was supposed to have become a porpoise, or on the battlefield, where another fell, might have been seen, sitting in silence, a group of five or six, and one a few '. Addressing some god of the family, he said, Oh, be kind to us let us The first thing that obtain without difficulty the spirit of the young man happened to light upon the sheet was supposed to be the spirit.

    If nothing came, it was supposed that the spirit had some ill-will to the person praying. By and by something came grasshopper, butterfly, ant, or whatever else it might be, it was carefully wrapped up, taken ;. This coffin lid, as well as '. Thus Raboky, who reigned at Baly, at no very long time past, never named by his old subjects as other than Andrianahatantiarivo, or " The lord who can bear a thousand calamities " Tsimanompo, the last Baraking of the district of Isantsa, is now is.

    The animal is then set free. The lord who is master of a thousand. Thus, after the death of Vinany, king of Menabe,. The Behisotra and Tandrbna or Tdnkodla. So we learn from a letter recently written by M. Vian, a naval surgeon, who was in the Bay of Mahajamba, and. Madagascar have not exerted on the habits of the inhabitants of that part of the island Ankoala and Ankarana so great an influence as.

    The Bezanozano. The burial monuments of the Bezanozano composed of a single stone or slab erected at the head and the east of the trench where the coffin is deposited, and of. Both the Bemihisatra and the Tandrona are merely branches or sub-tribes of the Sakalava, the Tandrona having a certain amount of African blood in them.

    Another important branch of the Sakalava in this part of the island is the Bemazava. The liquid products of decomposition flow upon the earthen floor. The inhabitants of the south-east-central parts. The Hova do not keep the dead in their houses as long as most of the other Malagasy, and they do not usually place. The slabs are mostly taken from rock masses which show no divisional planes whatsoever, and often run directly across the grain foliation of the rock the splitting is due simply to.

    At the end of the those. The mourning ceremonies are much more severe at the All the people, both male and decease of the sovereign. Throughout an entire year no one can sleep upon a bed or sit upon a chair they must sleep and sit upon the ground. All mirrors must be to the. The corpses are placed upon mats spread on the ground, and are covered with a simple. Mania and Matsiatra planted these funeral monuments are surrounded and surmounted by a number of wooden posts more or less ornamented with patterns in.

    Some families do not place their dead in the ground they finial,. The Andriana or nobles among the Betsileo are not interred for. Large ceremonies, and then make a large incision in each heel. These pots are examined with the greatest care, for the corpse cannot be removed from the house, and no one can work in the fields, until a certain small worm or maggot has made its appearance in one of the vessels.

    They wait sometimes for two and even three months before being able to proceed with the. Funeral Ceremonies at. During the interval between this Sunday and the I2th instant, the. There are several courts, with one or more palaces in each, separated from each other by high wooden railings and the whole of the courts and palaces are surrounded by a heavy ;. George Bennet, Esq. The pavilion was ten feet square, raised on pillars also richly ornaA platform of wood was thrown over upon the mented.

    White Palace previous to its being entombed. We immediately saw about sixteen or twenty females brought out of the apartment where the corpse lay, each lady on the back of her stout these were the queens bearer, weeping and lamenting aloud and princesses of the royal family, and formed the first part of the procession from one to the other palace our place was appointed immediately after the queens, but it was with diffi;.

    About six in the evening this coffin was by the multitude heaved up one of the steep sides of the mound to the top and placed in the tomb or chamber. Here the wooden coffin was broken up, and the corpse exposed to those near. At this time the royal female mourners, who had been all day uttering their moans in the pavilion, now crawled up the side of the pyramid They were most of them to take a last view of the remains. The expressions used by them in lamentation were some of them translated for us the " Why did you go away following was chiefly the substance " and leave me here?

    Oh come again and fetch me to you The body was transferred from the coffin of wood to that of silver. Those who were engaged in this service seemed to suffer from the effluvia, though many were constantly employed When the transfer had taken place sprinkling eau-de-cologne. During the whole of this day, while the chamber in the tomb was being prepared, the King's two bands of music, with drums the. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennet, Esq. London, , 2nd ed. But we see hardly anything of all this in tattooing,.

    The only examples I can recall of anything distinctively characteristic of Hova Malagasy as regards decoration are a slight ornamentation of the long. In the interior ornamentation of some of the royal houses at Antananarivo there seemed to me to be a certain distinct style prevalent. This is chiefly seen in the painted decorations of the upper parts of the walls, and sometimes of the ceilings, which, both in the colouring and large bold style of the patterns, always reminded me somewhat of Assyrian ornament, as shown in the decoration of the palaces at Persepolis.

    There is very little that is decorative in Hova pottei-y, but a special kind of vessel made for cooking the beef at the New Year's festival is rather elegant in shape, much resembling some of the Anglo-Saxon pottery. These vessels are circular and somewhat flattened, and are frequently ornamented with a series of lines and zigzags, very closely resembling those on the early fictile productions of the Germanic races.

    I was greatly interested with this carving, as being almost the first. The Hova governor had appropriated the site for his official residence and courtyard, and the picturesque tombs of the old Betsileo chiefs and the fine trees had been destroyed to make way for a great brick building, raw and commonplace, whose erection had been a heavy tax upon I. I got down from the palanquin and examined. Ambositra and on the road the previous day. Another kind of memorial was a massive square post of feet high and fifteen inches square, carved.

    These were for placing the ox skulls upon. Indeed we were struck by the number of tombs and carved monuments on the roadside all the. Richardson says that some of the Betsileo tombs are "as much as sixty feet deep, and are approached. The most these stones are covered with carved oxen and birds. It was a strange sight to see so many skulls of oxen with the horns, arranged thus, and bleach-. Here we went into one of the houses in the village for our it was the largest house there, but was not so large as our tent 11 feet square , and the walls were only 5 feet 6 inches high.

    The door was a small square aperture, i foot 10 inches wide by 2 feet 4 inches high, and its threshold 2 feet 9 inches from the ground. Close to it, at the end of the house, was another door or window, and opposite were two small openings about a foot and a half square. The hearth was opposite the door, and the bed-place in what is the window corner in Hova houses.

    In this house was the first example I had seen of decorative carving in Malagasy houses the external faces of the main post supporting the roof being carved with a simple but effective ornament of squares and diagonals. There was lunch. Shaw to the Antananarivo Annual for , he re" The most distinctive indigenous art of the Betsileo marks is the carving, which is noticed by every one travelling in any :.

    One of the most perfect examples of the post we saw the same day, in the morning, at situated village of Ivohitrdmbo. Some consisted of radiating triangles,. The wooden and horn spoons and wooden bowls for rice are also remarkably well carved, of good shape, beautifully smooth, and gracefully ornamented. Miss Buckland remarked that many of the patterns closely resembled tliose on articles from the Xicobar Islands. Spinning and Weaving. Most of the Malagasy races are expert in the various arts in which dexterity of hand is requisite.

    Very fine and strong cloths are also made from this fibre some of these have the woof of cotton, obtained by unravelling English or American calico. These form the Idinba, or outer native dress, which is folded gracefully, something in the fashion of the ancient Roman toga, one corner being thrown which. These are of considerable variety of. In gold and silver execution and ingenuity in design. There seems to be no trace of a stone age when iron was not known to the Hovas although, ;. The most important item of export at present is cattle. The colonies of Mauritius and Bourbon derive their entire supply of beef from the fine humped oxen which are shipped by thousands from the eastern ports.

    In later times, however, the trade is leaving somewhat the eastern side of the island, the ships fetching the cattle from the north-west coast, owing to their greater cheapness in the. I vividly remember my first ride in a filanjana at Tamatave, and how I was in fits of laughter all the way from my lodging to the Battery. Yet even in , the late Rev. One sees some absurd enough sights now and then, even at the present.

    All sorts of cast-off uniforms ;. Andohalo crowd the low-crowned " broad brims " once beloneinsr to some good East Anglian Quaker farmers, and pronounced that they must certainly have often figured in the sedate proceedings of "an Essex Quarterly Meeting. Most of the now dressed in neat and appropriate uniforms, and very many. Radama II.